I guess the other thing here is I see an active role for urban policy – which is a kind of centralising, if you like, albeit tempered by participative democracy, in my utopian approach! – so it’s the interplay between grid and non-grid that is interesting, with urban gov and urbanism as a glue, or hinge. But your front-end / back-end distinction is useful; a different axis.

Designer, urbanist, etc. Director of Strategic Design at Vinnova, Swedish govt’s innovation agency. Visiting prof UCL Bartlett IIPP + Design Academy Eindhoven

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