We might add “designers in drawings” to this useful list. Le Corbusier had a fine line in words, of course, and the issue with verbalistic ambiguity often skewered his intended meanings, but ironically (or not), he did say: “I prefer drawing to talking. Drawing is faster, and leaves less room for lies.” Images can lie, but they are less ambiguous than words. There is huge value in holding ambiguity through a design process – broadly interpreting design, including policy – and we could perhaps do better to embrace ambiguity at the most productive, generative stages (“objects”, “constructs” and “operators” can all be distinctly and unhelpfully reductive, if played poorly), but there comes a time to commit, to close down, to be precise, and that’s where visualisation can have merit – alongside the others you list.

Designer, urbanist, etc. Director of Strategic Design at Vinnova, Swedish govt’s innovation agency. Visiting prof UCL Bartlett IIPP + Design Academy Eindhoven

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store